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Of the three collaborators Gurney took the largest share in the planning of the work, in the collection of evidence, and in the elaboration and discussion of it. Gurney set out with the presumption that apparitions, whether coincidental or not, are hallucinations in the sense defined above; that they are false perceptions and are not excited by any object or process of the external world acting upon the sense-organs of the percipient in normal fashion; that they do not imply the presence, in the place apparently occupied by them, of any wraith or any form of existence emanating from, or specially connected with, the person whose phantasm appears.
This initial assumption was abundantly justified by an examination of a large number of cases for it, which showed that, in all important respects, most of these apparitions of persons at a distance, whether coincidental or not, were similar to other forms of hallucination.
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The acceptance of this conclusion does not, however, imply a negative answer to the question formulated above. The Society for Psychical Research had accumulated an impressive and, to almost all those who had first-hand acquaintance with it, a convincing mass of experimental evidence of the reality of telepathy q. The successful experiments had for the most part been made between persons in close proximity, in the same room or in adjoining rooms; but they seemed to show that the state of consciousness of one person may induce directly i. That the coincidences are not merely accidental can only be proved by showing that they occur more frequently than the doctrine of chances would justify us in expecting.
On the other hand, hallucinatory perceptions of persons, occurring to sane and healthy individuals in the fully waking state, are comparatively rare occurrences, whose frequency we may hope to determine by a statistical inquiry. If, then, we can obtain figures expressing the frequency of such hallucinations, we can deduce, by the help of the laws of chance, the proportion of such hallucinations that may be expected to coincide with or, for the purposes of the inquiry, to fall within twelve hours of the death of the person whose apparition appears, if no causal relation obtains between the coinciding events.
If, then, it appears that the proportion of such coincidental hallucinations is greater than the laws of probability will account for, a certain presumption of a causal relation between the coinciding events is thereby established; and the greater the excess of such coincidences, the stronger does this presumption become.
Gurney attempted a census of hallucinations in order to obtain data for this statistical treatment, and the results of it, embodied in Phantasms of the Living , were considered by the authors of that work to justify the belief that some coincidental hallucinations are veridical.
In the year the Society for Psychical Research appointed a committee, under the chairmanship of the late Henry Sidgwick, to make a second census of hallucinations on a more extensive and systematic plan than the first, in order that the important conclusion reached by the authors of Phantasms of the Living might be put to the severer test rendered possible by a larger and more carefully collected mass of data.
In this way it was found that of the total number, apparitions of persons living at the moment or not more than twelve hours dead had been recognized by the percipients, and that, of these, 80 were alleged to have been experienced within twelve hours of the death of the person whose apparition had appeared. A careful review of all the facts, conditions and probabilities, led the committee to estimate that the former number should be enlarged to in order to make ample allowance for forgetfulness and for all other causes that might have tended to prevent the registration of apparitions of this class.
On the other hand, a severe criticism of the alleged death-coincidences led them to reduce the number, admitted by them for the purposes of their calculation, to The making of these adjustments gives us about 1 in 43 as the proportion of coincidental death-apparitions to the total number of recognized apparitions among the 17, persons reached by the census.
Now the death-rate being just over 19 per thousand, the probability that any person taken at random will die on a given day is about 1 in 19,; or, more strictly speaking, the average probability that any person will die within any given period of twenty-four hours duration is about 1 in 19, Hence the probability that any other particular event, having no causal relation to his death, but occurring during his lifetime or not later than twelve hours after his death will fall within the same twenty-four hours as his death is 1 in 19,; i.
Therefore, of all recognized apparitions of living persons, 1 only in 19, may be expected to be a death-coincidence of this sort. But the census shows that of recognized apparitions of living persons 30 are death-coincidences and that is equivalent to in 19, Hence, of recognized hallucinations, those coinciding with death are times more numerous than we should expect, if no causal relation obtained; therefore, if neither the data nor the reasoning can be destructively criticized, we are compelled to believe that some causal relation obtains; and, since good evidence of telepathic communication has been experimentally obtained, the least improbable explanation of these death-apparitions is that the dying person exerts upon his distant friend some telepathic influence which generates an hallucinatory perception of himself.
These death-coincidences constitute the main feature of the argument in favour of telepathic communication between distant persons, but the census of hallucinations afforded other data from which a variety of arguments, tending to support this conclusion, were drawn by the committee; of these the most important are the cases in which the hallucinatory percept embodied details that were connected with the person perceived and which could not have become known to the percipient by any normal means.
The committee could not find in the results of the census any evidence sufficient to justify a belief that hallucinations may be due to telepathic influence exerted by personalities surviving the death of the body. The critical handling of the cases by the committee seems to be above reproach. Those who do not accept their conclusion based on the death-coincidences must direct their criticism to the question of the reliability of the reports of these cases.
It is to be noted that, although only those cases are reckoned in which the percipient had no cause to expect the death of the person whose apparition he experienced, and although, in nearly all the accepted cases, some record or communication of the hallucination was made before hearing of the death, yet in very few cases was any contemporary written record of the event forthcoming for the inspection of the committee. Its church is of Gothic architecture. The manufactures comprise linen and cotton goods, chairs and rubber goods, and brewing and tanning are carried on; there is a board of trade arbitration.
The family of Halluin is mentioned as early as the 13th century. In the title of duke and peer of the realm was granted to it, but in the succeeding century it became extinct.
In , after having held appointments at Spires and Hadamar, he became rector of the newly founded Maximiliansgymnasium at Munich, and in director of the royal library and professor in the university. These posts he held till his death on the 5th of October It is chiefly as the editor of Cicero and other Latin prose authors that Halm is known, although in early years he also devoted considerable attention to Greek. After the death of J.
Orelli, he joined J. Baiter in the preparation of a revised critical edition of the rhetorical and philosophical writings of Cicero His school editions of some of the speeches of Cicero in the Haupt and Sauppe series, with notes and introductions, were very successful. He also edited a number of classical texts for the Teubner series, the most important of which are Tacitus 4th ed.drogaldervi.tk
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He was also an enthusiastic collector of autographs. See articles by W. Christ and G. Laubmann in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie and by C. Bursian in Biographisches Jahrbuch ; and J. Sandys, Hist. In the two-handed game 19 men are employed on each side, coloured respectively black and white; in the four-handed each player has 13, the men being coloured white, black, red and green.
At the beginning of the game the men are drawn up in triangular formation in the enclosures, or yards , diagonally opposite each other in the corners of the board. The moves are made alternately, the mode of progression being by a step , from one square to another immediately adjacent, or by a jump whence the name , which is the jumping of a man from a square in front of it into an empty square on the other side of it. This corresponds to jumping in draughts, except that, in halma, the hop may be in any direction, over friendly as well as hostile men, and the men jumped over are not taken but remain on the board.
In the four-handed game either each player plays for himself, or two adjacent players play against the other two. Its shape is extremely irregular, resembling that of the island of Celebes. It consists of four peninsulas so arranged as to enclose three great bays Kayu, Bicholi, Weda , all opening towards the east, the northern peninsula being connected with the others by an isthmus only 5 m.
On the western side of the isthmus lies another bay, that of Dodinga, in the mouth of which are situated the two islands Ternate and Tidore, whose political importance exceeds that of the larger island see these articles. Of the four peninsulas of Halmahera the northern and the southern are reckoned to the sultanate of Ternate, the north-eastern and south-eastern to that of Tidore; the former having eleven, the latter three districts.
The distance between the extremities of the northern and southern peninsulas, measured along the curve of the west coast, is about m. Knowledge of the island is very incomplete. It appears that the four peninsulas are traversed in the direction of their longitudinal axis by mountain chains to ft.
The mountain chains are frequently interrupted by plains, such as those of Weda and Kobi. The northern part of the mountain chain of the northern peninsula is volcanic, its volcanoes continuing the line of those of Makian, Ternate and Tidore. Coral formations on heights in the interior would indicate oscillations of the land in several periods, but a detailed geology of the island is wanting. To the north-east of the northern peninsula is the considerable island of Morotai sq. Galela is a considerable settlement, situated on a bay of the same name on the north-east coast, in a well cultivated plain which extends southward and inland.
Vegetation is prolific. Rice is grown by the natives, but the sago tree is of far greater importance to them. Dammar and coco-nuts are also grown. The sea yields trepang and pearl shells. A little trade is carried on by the Chinese and Macassars of Ternate, who, crossing the narrow isthmus of Dodinga, enter the bay of Kayu on the east coast.
The total population is estimated at , The inhabitants are mostly of immigrant Malayan stock. In the northern peninsula are found people of Papuan type, probably representing the aborigines, and a tribe around Galela, who are Polynesian in physique, possibly remnants, much mixed by subsequent crossings with the Papuan indigenes, of the Caucasian hordes emigrating in prehistoric times across the Pacific.
Achille Raffray gives a description of them in Tour du monde where photographs will be found. Their beards are sometimes thick; their limbs are muscular; the colour of their skins is cinnamon brown. Spears of iron-wood, abundantly barbed, and small bows and bamboo arrows free from poison are their principal weapons. They believe in a better life hereafter, but have no idea of a hell or a devil, their evil spirits only tormenting them in the present state.
The Portuguese and Spaniards were better acquainted with Halmahera than with many other parts of the archipelago; they called it sometimes Batu China and sometimes Moro. It was circumnavigated by one of their vessels in , and the general outline of the coasts is correctly given in their maps at a time when separate portions of Celebes, such as Macassar and Menado, are represented as distinct islands.
The name Jilolo was really that of a native state, the sultan of which had the chief rank among the princes of the Moluccas before he was supplanted by the sultan of Ternate about His capital, Jilolo, lay on the west coast on the first bay to the north of that of Dodinga. In Danu Hassan, a descendant of the sultans of Jilolo, raised an insurrection in the island for the purpose of throwing off the authority of the sultans of Tidore and Ternate; and his efforts would probably have been successful but for the intervention of the Dutch. In a Dutch expedition was directed against the pirates of Tobalai, and they were virtually extirpated.
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Slavery remains in the interior. Missionary work, carried on in the northern peninsula of Halmahera since , has been fairly successful among the heathen natives, but less so among the Mahommedans, who have often incited the others against the missionaries and their converts. It lies at the mouth of the river Nissa, having an inner harbour 15 ft. In the neighbourhood there are quarries of granite, which is exported chiefly to Germany. Other industries are engineering, shipbuilding and brewing, and there are cloth, jute, hat, wood-pulp and paper factories.
The principal exports are granite, timber and hats; and butter through Helsingborg and Gothenburg. The imports are coal, machinery and grain. Potatoes are largely grown in the district, and the salmon fisheries are valuable. The castle is the residence of the governor of the province. There are both mineral and sea-water baths in the neighbourhood.
Mention of the church of Halmstad occurs as early as , and the fortifications are mentioned first in The latter were demolished in There were formerly Dominican and Franciscan monasteries in the town.
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The oldest town-privileges date from During the revolt of the miner Engelbrekt, it twice fell into the hands of the rebels—in and The town appears to have been frequently chosen as the meeting-place of the rulers and delegates of the three northern kingdoms; and under the union of Kalmar it was appointed to be the place for the election of a new Scandinavian monarch whenever necessary. In , by the treaty of Copenhagen, the whole district was ceded to Sweden. In Charles XII. HALO, a word derived from the Gr. It was thence applied to denote any luminous ring, such as that viewed around the sun or moon, or portrayed about the heads of saints.
In physical science, a halo is a luminous circle, surrounding the sun or moon, with various auxiliary phenomena, and formed by the reflection and refraction of light by ice-crystals suspended in the atmosphere. The optical phenomena produced by atmospheric water and ice may be divided into two classes, according to the relative position of the luminous ring and the source of light.